Mozaik Islam

Puasa Ramadhan, Fiqih Shalat, Rahasia Sunnah, Zakat Fitrah, Haji dan Umrah

Zakaah

Definition of zakaah

Linguistically: Purity and growth.

Juridically: Obligatory sadaqah (charity) due on wealth; given under certain conditions, to specific persons at a specific time.

Islamic ruling on zakaah

Third pillar of Islam (obligatory / mandatory).

Allah ( Subhanahu wa ta’ala ) says in the Quran:

وأَقِيمُوا الصَّلاَةَ وَءَاتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ (النور:56)

So establish salaah and give zakaah and obey the Messenger; that you may receive mercy.” (An-Noor: 56)

Allah ( Subhanahu wa ta’ala ) says in the Quran:

خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِمْ بِهَا (التوبة:103)

Take from there wealth a sadaqah in order to purify them and sanctify them with it.” (At-Tawbah: 103)

 Ibn Omar reported that the Messenger of Allah () said:

“بني الإسلام على خمس…” إلى أن قال “وإيتاء الزكاة” (رواه البخاري ومسلم)

Islam has been built on five (pillars)…” and he mentioned, “Giving zakaah.” (Collected by Al-Bukhaari & Muslim)

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah () said:

“ما من صاحب ذهب ولا فضة لا يؤدي منها حقها إلا إذا كان يوم القيامة صفحت له صفائح من نار فأحمي عليها في نار جهنم فيكوى بها جنبه وجبينه وظهره كلما بردت أعيدت له في يوم كان مقداره خمسين ألف سنة حتى يقضى بين العباد فيرى سبيله إما إلى الجنة وإما إلى النار.” (رواه مسلم)

Any possessor of gold or silver who does not give what is due on them, on the Day of Resurrection, plates of gold and silver would be heated for him in the hellfire and with them will be ironed his side, his forehead and his back. Whenever they cool down, the process will be repeated during a day the measure whereof will be fifty thousand years, until judgement is pronounced among (Allah’s) slaves, and he will be shown his final domain, either al-Jannah (Paradise) or an-Naar (Hellfire).” (Collected by Muslim)

If someone denies the obligation of zakaah, then he is outside of Islam. If someone refrains from giving zakaah, knowing its obligation, then he is guilty of committing a major sin. If some people group together and refrain from giving zakaah, knowing its obligation, then they should be fought until they yield and pay.

Benefits of zakaah

  1. Above all it is an act of obedience to Allah.
  2. Helps the poor and needy.
  3. Purifies a person from greed; and teaches generosity.
  4. Keeps the wealth circulating.
  5. Allah increases and blesses the wealth.
  6. Purifies the heart of the recipient from envy and jealousy against the rich.

Conditions for giving zakaah

  1. Islam (male & female, old & young, sane & insane).
  2. Freedom.
  3. Possession of the nisaab: (the lowest amount of wealth on which zakaah is due).
  4. Possession of the nisaab for one hijra year. (except for produce of the earth).
  5. Sole and complete ownership of the wealth.
    1. If a person is in debt, the debt should be paid back first, then zakaah is given on the remaining wealth.
    2. Zakaah is due yearly on money lent that will probably be paid back.
    3. Zakaah is not due yearly on money lent that will probably not be paid back. (only one years worth of zakaah is due if the money is paid back).
    4. Zakaah is not due on personal items, such as your car, house, clothes, etc.

Recipients of zakaah

Allah ( Subhanahu wa ta’ala ) says in the Quran:

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاِبْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِنَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ (التوبة:60)

Verily, sadaqah (charity) are for the poor, and the needy, and for those employed to collect it, and for those whose hearts are to be won over, and for freeing slaves, and for those in debt, and in the cause of Allah, and for a stranded traveler. This is an obligatory duty imposed by Allah, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (At-Tawbah: 60)

  1. The poor
  2. The needy
  3. Those employed to collect it:
  4. Those whose hearts are to be won over:
    1. Muslims / new Muslims: To strengthen their attachment to Islam.
    2. Non-Muslims: To encourage those who are close to embracing Islam.
  5. Freeing slaves / Muslim prisoners of war.
  6. Those in debt:
    1. Debt resulting from ones own behalf (personal loan).
    2. Debt resulting from efforts to reconcile between people.
  7. In the cause of Allah (jihad)
  8. Stranded traveler.

It is preferred to give zakaah to Muslim relatives who are in need; but not those who are under your responsibility (father, son, wife, etc..). It is allowed for the wife to give zakaah to her poor husband. Zakaah is not for building masjids, schools, etc.

Forms of wealth on which zakaah is due

Wealth Nisaab Rate due
Livestock(Free grazing and raised for breeding and/or milk production)(Given after completing one hijri year)
Sheep 40 – 12012 1 – 200

201 –  For every

100 after.

1 sheep2 sheep

3 sheep

1 sheep

Cows 30 – 3940 – 59

60 –  For every 30 after.

For every 40 after.

he or she calf (1 yr. Old)1 she calf (2 yr. Old)  2 she calves (2 yr. Old)

1 she calf (1 yr. Old)

1 she calf (2 yr. Old)

Camels For every 5 until 20.
25 – 3536 – 45
46 – 60
61 – 75
76 – 90
91 – 120
121 –
For every 40 after.
For every 50 after.
1 sheep1 she camel (1 yr. Old)

or 1 he camel (2 yr. Old)

1 she camel (2 yr. Old)

1 she camel (3 yr. Old)

1 she camel (4 yr. Old)

2 she camels (2 yr. Old)

2 she camels (3 yr. Old)

3 she camels (2 yr. Old)

1 she camel (2 yr. Old)

1 she camel (3 yr. Old)

Trade goods for sale
Gold 85 g 2.5% (after completingone hijra year)
Silver 595 g
Money Value
of the nisaabfor gold or silver.
Trade goods for sale
Trade goods for sale:(e.g. land, vehicles,food, animals) Value of the nisaabfor gold or silver. 2.5% (after completingone hijri year)
Produce of the earth
Certain farm produce:(grains, seeds & driedfruits that can be

stored & measured

by capacity)

(e.g. wheat, corn, dates

618 kg / 300 saa'(1 saa’= 4 handfuls) 10% if naturallyirrigated.5% if artificially

irrigated.

Note: Given at harvest time.

Precious mineralsand ores:(e.g. lead, copper, oil) Value of the nisaab  for gold or silver. 2.5% (when taken outof the ground)
Rikaaz: (non-Muslimburied treasures) Zakaah is due even  on a small amount. 20% (when taken outof the ground)