Mozaik Islam

Puasa Ramadhan, Fiqih Shalat, Rahasia Sunnah, Zakat Fitrah, Haji dan Umrah

What Allah Disallowed does not Benefit Mankind

Dr. Ibrahim also mentioned some general statements by ibn Qudamah, ibn Taimiyyah and ibn Al-Qayyim about allowing the practices that benefit Muslims in general, which also do not cause any harm for Muslims.

However, we must stress that these mentioned scholars restricted this ruling, by only allowing the beneficial practices that do not contradict any Text in the Quran or Sunnah. Consequently, we must state that the arguments that Ibrahim mentioned in this part of his research are not relevant to the topic under discussion. The, ‘beneficial practices’, that these Imams allowed are matters of Ijtihad (personal opinion) that do not contradict a clear Text in the Quran or the Sunnah.

It is a fact that clear Texts in the Quran and the Sunnah state that both Riba Al-Fadhl and Riba An-Nasee-ah are not permissible for Muslims. We should also add that the scholars stated that prohibiting Riba Al-Fadhl also involves prohibiting the methods and means that lead to it.

We should remind the reader that when some of the companions bartered two Sa` of inferior dates for one Sa` (around 3 kilograms) of good dates (i.e., Riba al-Fadhl), the Prophet, salla allahu `alaihi wa-sallam, said,

“عَيْنُ الرِّبَا عَيْنُ الرِّبَا لاَ تَفْعَلْ”.

This is Riba itself! This is Riba itself! Do not do this.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].

Furthermore, the Two Sahihs [al-Bukhari and Muslim] narrated that, Abu Sa`eed Al-Khudri said that, the Prophet, salla allahu `alaihi wa-sallam, said,

“لاَ تَبِيعُوا الذَّهَبَ بِالذَّهَبِ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ وَلاَ تُشِفُّوا بَعْضَهَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَلاَ تَبِيعُوا الْوَرِقَ بِالْوَرِقِ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ وَلاَ تُشِفُّوا بَعْضَهَا عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَلاَ تَبِيعُوا مِنْهَا غَائِبًا بِنَاجِزٍ”.

“Do not sell gold for gold unless equivalent in weight, and do not sell less amount for greater amount or vice versa; and do not sell silver for silver unless equivalent in weight, and do not sell less amount for greater amount or vice versa; and do not sell gold or silver that is not present at the moment of exchange for gold or silver that is present.” Also, Sahih Muslim narrated that ‘Ubadah ibn As-Samit said that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said,

“الذَّهَبُ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةُ بِالْفِضَّةِ وَالْبُرُّ بِالْبُرِّ وَالشَّعِيرُ بِالشَّعِيرِ وَالتَّمْرُ بِالتَّمْرِ وَالْمِلْحُ بِالْمِلْحِ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ سَوَاءً بِسَوَاءٍ يَدًا بِيَدٍ فَإِذَا اخْتَلَفَتْ هَذِهِ الأَصْنَافُ فَبِيعُوا كَيْفَ شِئْتُمْ إِذَا كَانَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ”.

Gold for gold, silver for silver, wheat grain for wheat grain, barley for barley, dates for dates, salt for salt: equal in weight, equal in amount and from hand to hand (the payment is not delayed). When these types are not the same kind, then sell as you like as long as it was from hand to hand.” There are many other authentic Hadiths on this subject in the Two Sahihs [as Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslims are called], as well as, other books of Hadith.

As for the Hadith that states, “Riba involves the Nasee-ah”, the scholars stated that it only indicates the fact that most Riba transactions are of a Nasee-ah type, not all of them. The previous two Hadiths, as well as, several other authentic Hadiths clearly demonstrate that there are several other types of Riba. In fact, Riba transactions usually combine both Riba al-Fadhl and Riba An-Nasee-ah! Consequently, those who indulge in Riba with the banks, and the owners of these banks, combine two types of Riba, Riba an-Nasee-ah1 and the interest itself that is collected2, thus, carrying the burden of both illegal transactions.
Riba is a Prohibited Type of Transaction, Even When it Provides a Mutual Benefit

We should state here that Riba is not prohibited only because usury transactions require the needy to pay the incurred interest. Riba is `Haram (prohibited) because of the injustice it exerts on the needy who have to pay the accumulating interest, and also because it is a prohibited type of transactions. Certainly, forcing the needy to pay the Riba on their debts is a great injustice, especially since [Islamically] the lender is required to be patient with the needy borrower, not illegally increase the principal of his debt.

In addition, Riba is still disallowed even when it brings a mutual benefit for both the lender and the indebted person. Islam does not take this mutual benefit from Riba into consideration. Rather, Riba is `Haram any way you look at it. The Prophet, salla allahu `alaihi wa-sallam, clearly stated this fact in many of his Hadiths, such as the above stated Hadiths. If Islam considered mutual agreement and benefit from Riba by the lender and the borrower a factor that allows Riba transaction, Allah would have informed us of this fact in His Glorious Book, or by the words of His Messenger, peace be upon him. Allah said,

 وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَاناً لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدىً وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَى لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ 

what translated means, {And We have sent down to you the Book (the Quran) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims)}[16:89].

Imam Muslim narrated in his, Sahih, that Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn Al-`Aas stated, that the Prophet salla allahu `alaihi wa-sallam said,

“إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ نَبِيٌّ قَبْلِي إِلاَّ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَدُلَّ أُمَّتَهُ عَلَى خَيْرِ مَا يَعْلَمُهُ لَهُمْ وَيُنْذِرَهُمْ شَرَّ مَا يَعْلَمُهُ لَهُمْ”.

what translated means, “Every Prophet whom Allah sent before me was required to guide his people to what is the best of what he knows for them, and to warn them against the worst of what he knows for them.” It is a fact that our Prophet salla allahu `alaihi wa-sallam is the best of Allah’s prophets and messengers and that he perfectly delivered Allah’s Message.

Consequently, if Islam had considered the mutual benefit from Riba a factor for allowing it, then the Prophet (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّمَ) would have informed the Muslim Ummah (Nation) of this fact. On the contrary, the fact is that the Prophet (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وسَلَّمَ) clearly stated in his Hadiths that all types of Riba are `Haram (impermissible), and just as Allah stated in many Ayat, the Sunnah explains the Quran.

Allah said,

 وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّــرُونَ 

{And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad) the reminder and the advice (the Quran), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought}[16:44],

 وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلاَّ لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ وَهُدىً وَرَحْمَةً لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ 

{And We have not sent down the Book (the Quran) to you (O Muhammad), except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ, and a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believes}[16:64]. There are many other Ayat in the Quran on this topic.

By: Shaikh: Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Abdullah ibn Baz